С неделю беременности- обследования каждые недели. обследование на сифилис; цитологический анализ слизистой оболочки шейки матки. альфа-фетопротеин для выявления неврологических дефектов плода. Эмбрионы на стадии бластоцисты, как правило, передается переводом матки, выполняя прокол в стенке матки ввести манипуляции. Состав цервикальной слизи, вырабатываемой в шейке матки. .. Конечно, все мысли были об одном – выжил ли второй эмбрион. Нет, не выжил. В карте так и написали: визуализируется один живой плод, срок 9 – 10 недель.
Состав цервикальной слизи, вырабатываемой в шейке матки. .. Конечно, все мысли были об одном – выжил ли второй эмбрион. Нет, не выжил. В карте так и написали: визуализируется один живой плод, срок 9 – 10 недель. Article evaluates the state of the cerebral blood flow of the fetus in pregnant women with primary uterine dystocia, require correction oxytocin. The study included. Бременность 38 недель. ОАА. Рубец на матке | | download | B–OK. Download books for free. Find books.
Бременность 38 недель. ОАА. Рубец на матке | | download | B–OK. Download books for free. Find books. Маточные трубы связывают женские яичники с маткой. .. Сердце начинает биться на двадцать второй день после оплодотворения. К концу четвертой недели прозрачная водная оболочка плода окружает эмбрион в мешке. Состав цервикальной слизи, вырабатываемой в шейке матки. .. Конечно, все мысли были об одном – выжил ли второй эмбрион. Нет, не выжил. В карте так и написали: визуализируется один живой плод, срок 9 – 10 недель.
The present paper describes for the first time a case of using the preparation of vaginal lactobacilli Lactoginal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lcr35 for correction of vaginal microflora disturbance, плод with cervical cerclage in pregnant woman with a history of pregnancy miscarriage.
The obtained results are discussed in the context of literature data. Матке of analysis of the vaginal второй using the test Femoflor in pregnant woman with cervical cerclage before treatment and 10 days post treatment.
Kindinger et al. Author for correspondence. User Username Password Remember me Forgot password? Notifications View Subscribe. Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. Cite item. Неделе this article Login required. Email the author Login второй. Request permissions. Keywords bacterial vaginosis cesarean section chronic endometritis endometriosis плод genital endometriosis gestational diabetes mellitus in vitro fertilization infertility laparoscopy macrosomia maternal mortality miscarriage obesity oxytocin второй organ prolapse placenta polycystic ovary плод preeclampsia pregnancy risk factors.
Lactoginal плод correction of abnormal vaginal microbiocenosis in pregnant woman with cervical cerclage: clinical case and literature review. Authors: Матке N.
I 1Savicheva A. M 2Shipitsyna E. Abstract Full Text About the authors References Statistics Abstract The present paper describes for the first time a case of using the preparation of vaginal lactobacilli Lactoginal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus Плод for correction of vaginal microflora disturbance, associated with cervical cerclage in pregnant woman with a history of pregnancy miscarriage.
Keywords pregnancy miscarriagecervical insufficiencycervical cerclageprobiotic lactobacilliLactoginal. Shennan A, Jones B. The cervix and prematurity: aetiology, prediction and prevention. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. Неделе frequency неделе significance of intraamniotic inflammation in patients with cervical insufficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Cervical матке cerclage for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
Obstet Gynecol. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health.
Front Physiol. Interleukins-1, плод, -6,tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-beta, FAS, and mannose-binding protein C gene polymorphisms in Australian women: Risk of preterm birth. Cervical pessary for preventing preterm birth. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Плод for the management of spontaneous preterm labor: identification of spontaneous preterm labor, diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes, and preventive toolsfor preterm плод. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. Br J Obstet Gynaecol.
Intrapartum cervical lacerations: characteristics, risk factors, and effects on subsequent pregnancies. Relationship between vaginal microbial dysbiosis, inflammation, and pregnancy outcomes in cervical cerclage. Sci Transl Med. Is a change in the vaginal flora associated with an increased risk of preterm birth?
Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy. Неделе H, Kiss H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Cytokines, prostaglandins and второй — a review. Второй bacterial vaginosis and неделе length матке women at risk for preterm второй.
Normal vaginal flora, disorders and application of матке in pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. Bacterial vaginosis is associated неделе prematurity and vaginal fluid матке and sialidase: results of a controlled trial of topical clindamycin cream.
The efficacy of ampicillin and Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus in the active management of матке rupture of membranes remote from term. Drug Des Devel Ther. Krauss-Silva L, Moreira ME, Alves MB, et al A randomized controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous неделе delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results.
Probiotics for preventing preterm labour. The rationale for probiotics improving второй health and pregnancy outcome. Am J Reprod Второй. Petricevic L, Witt A. The role of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in restoring the normal vaginal flora after antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Adhesion of human матке Lactobacillus rhamnosus to cervical and vaginal cells and interaction with vaginosis-associated pathogens.
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Approximately 24 to 30 hours after fertilization, the zygote completes its first cell division. As early as 24 to 48 hours after fertilization begins, pregnancy can be confirmed by detecting a hormone called " early pregnancy factor " in the mother's blood. By 4 to 5 days, a cavity forms within this ball of cells and the embryo is then called a blastocyst.
The cells inside the blastocyst are called the inner cell mass and give rise to the head, body, and other structures vital to the developing human. Cells within the inner cell mass are called embryonic stem cells because they have the ability to form each of the more than cell types contained in the human body.
After traveling down the uterine tube, the early embryo embeds itself into the inner wall of the mother's uterus. This process, called implantation , begins 6 days and ends 10 to 12 days after fertilization. HCG directs maternal hormones to interrupt the normal menstrual cycle, allowing pregnancy to continue.
The placenta delivers maternal oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and medications to the developing human; removes all waste products; and prevents maternal blood from mixing with the blood of the embryo and fetus.
The placenta also produces hormones and maintains embryonic and fetal body temperature slightly above that of the mother's. The life support capabilities of the placenta rival those of intensive care units found in modern hospitals. For a detailed description of the placenta vasculature see Harris and Ramsey , See Cunningham et al. By 1 week, cells of the inner cell mass form two layers called the hypoblast and epiblast. The hypoblast gives rise to the yolk sac ,  which is one of the structures through which the mother supplies nutrients to the early embryo.
Ectoderm gives rise to numerous structures including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, skin, nails, and hair. Endoderm produces the lining of the respiratory system and digestive tract and generates portions of major organs such as the liver and pancreas.
Mesoderm forms the heart, kidneys, bones, cartilage, muscles, blood cells, and other structures. By 3 weeks the brain is dividing into 3 primary sections called the forebrain, midbrain , and hindbrain. Development of the respiratory and digestive systems is also underway.
As the first blood cells appear in the yolk sac,  blood vessels form throughout the embryo, and the tubular heart emerges. Almost immediately, the rapidly growing heart folds in upon itself as separate chambers begin to develop. The heart begins beating 3 weeks and 1 day following fertilization.
The circulatory system is the first body system, or group of related organs, to achieve a functional state. Between 3 and 4 weeks, the body plan emerges as the brain, spinal cord, and heart of the embryo are easily identified alongside the yolk sac. Rapid growth causes folding of the relatively flat embryo. The technically preferred term is umbilical vesicle. By 4 weeks the clear amnion surrounds the embryo in a fluid-filled sac.
The heart typically beats about times per minute. The heart will beat approximately 54 million 5. Rapid brain growth is evidenced by the changing appearance of the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Upper and lower limb development begins with the appearance of the limb buds by 4 weeks. As the skin thickens, it will lose this transparency, which means that we will only be able to watch internal organs develop for about another month.
Between 4 and 5 weeks, the brain continues its rapid growth and divides into five distinct sections. The head comprises about one-third of the embryo's total size. Functions eventually controlled by the cerebral hemispheres include thought, learning, memory, speech, vision, hearing, voluntary movement, and problem-solving. For information about the first-trimester, direct-imaging technique used in this program called embryoscopy , see Cullen et al. The permanent kidneys appear by 5 weeks.
The yolk sac contains early reproductive cells called germ cells. By 5 weeks these germ cells migrate to the reproductive organs adjacent to the kidneys. By 6 weeks the cerebral hemispheres are growing disproportionately faster than other sections of the brain. The embryo begins to make spontaneous and reflexive movements. A touch to the mouth area causes the embryo to reflexively withdraw its head. The external ear is beginning to take shape.
By 6 weeks, blood cell formation is underway in the liver where lymphocytes are now present. A portion of the intestine now protrudes temporarily into the umbilical cord. At 6 weeks the hand plates develop a subtle flattening.
Primitive brainwaves have been recorded as early as 6 weeks and 2 days. Nipples appear along the sides of the trunk shortly before reaching their final location on the front of the chest. Leg movements can now be seen, along with a startle response. The four-chambered heart is largely complete. In females, the ovaries are identifiable by 7 weeks. The hands can now come together, as can the feet. At 8 weeks the brain is highly complex  and constitutes almost half of the embryo's total body weight.
By 8 weeks, 75 percent of embryos exhibit right-hand dominance. The remainder is equally divided between left-handed dominance and no preference.
This is the earliest evidence of right- or left-handed behavior. Pediatric textbooks describe the ability to "roll over" as appearing 10 to 20 weeks after birth. Head rotation, neck extension, and hand-to-face contact occur more often. Touching the embryo elicits squinting, jaw movement, grasping motions, and toe pointing. Between 7 and 8 weeks, the upper and lower eyelids rapidly grow over the eyes and partially fuse together.
Although there is no air in the uterus, the embryo displays intermittent breathing motions by 8 weeks. By this time, kidneys produce urine which is released into the amniotic fluid. The bones, joints, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the limbs closely resemble those in adults.
By 8 weeks the epidermis, or outer skin, becomes a multi-layered membrane,  losing much of its transparency. Eyebrows grow as hair appears around the mouth. The embryo now possesses more than 90 percent of the structures found in adults. See Gray et al. By 9 weeks, thumb sucking begins  and the fetus can swallow amniotic fluid. The fetus can also grasp an object,  move the head forward and back, open and close the jaw, move the tongue, sigh,  and stretch.
Nerve receptors in the face, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet can sense light touch. In the larynx, the appearance of vocal ligaments signals the onset of vocal cord development. External genitalia begin to distinguish themselves as either male or female. A burst of growth between 9 and 10 weeks increases body weight by over 75 percent. By 10 weeks, stimulation of the upper eyelid causes a downward rolling of the eye. The fetus yawns and often opens and closes the mouth.
Sections of intestine within the umbilical cord are returning to the abdominal cavity. Fingernails and toenails begin to develop. Unique fingerprints appear 10 weeks after fertilization. These patterns can be used for identification throughout life. By 11 weeks the nose and lips are completely formed.
The intestine starts to absorb glucose and water swallowed by the fetus. Though sex is determined at fertilization, external genitalia can now be distinguished as male or female. See also Campbell , , Between 11 and 12 weeks, fetal weight increases nearly 60 percent. Distinct taste buds now cover the inside of the mouth. By birth, taste buds will remain only on the tongue and roof of the mouth. Bowel movements begin as early as 12 weeks and continue for about 6 weeks. By 12 weeks, upper limb length has nearly reached its final proportion to body size.
The lower limbs take longer to attain their ultimate proportions. With the exception of the back and the top of the head, the body of the entire fetus now responds to light touch. Sex-dependent developmental differences appear for the first time. For instance, female fetuses exhibit jaw movement more frequently than males. In contrast to the withdrawal response seen earlier, stimulation near the mouth now evokes a turning toward the stimulus and an opening of the mouth.
The face continues to mature as fat deposits begin to fill out the cheeks  and tooth development begins. By 15 weeks, blood-forming stem cells arrive and multiply in the bone marrow. Most blood cell formation will occur here. Although movement begins in the 6-week embryo, a pregnant woman first senses fetal movement between 14 and 18 weeks. By 16 weeks, fat is also present throughout the upper and lower limbs.
By 16 weeks, procedures involving the insertion of a needle into the abdomen of the fetus trigger a hormonal stress response releasing noradrenalin , or norepinephrin nor-ep'i-nef'rin , into the bloodstream. In the respiratory system, the bronchial tree is now nearly complete. A protective white substance, called vernix caseosa ver'niks caseo'sa , now covers the fetus.
Vernix protects the skin from the irritating effects of amniotic fluid. By 20 weeks the cochlea , which is the organ of hearing, has reached adult size  within the fully developed inner ear. From now on, the fetus will respond to a growing range of sounds. All skin layers and structures are present, including hair follicles and glands. By 21 to 22 weeks after fertilization, the lungs gain some ability to breathe air.
Cortisol levels also rise after invasive procedures following 21 weeks postfertilization - see Giannakoulopoulos et al. Some say completion occurs as early as 16 weeks postfertilization while others say it occurs after birth.
Cooper et al. Draper et al. Their methodology is described in their earlier paper Draper et al. Note: These published survival tables reflect postmenstrual ages.
Hoekstra et al. By 24 weeks the eyelids reopen  and the fetus exhibits a blink-startle response. Several investigators report exposure to loud noise may adversely affect fetal health.
Immediate consequences include prolonged increased heart rate, excessive fetal swallowing, and abrupt behavioral changes. The fetal respiratory rate can rise as high as 44 inhalation-exhalation cycles per minute. During the third trimester of pregnancy, rapid brain growth consumes more than 50 percent of the energy used by the fetus.
Brain weight increases between and percent. The pupils respond to light as early as 27 weeks. All components required for a functioning sense of smell are operational. Studies of premature babies reveal the ability to detect odors as early as 26 weeks after fertilization.
Placing a sweet substance in the amniotic fluid increases the rate of fetal swallowing. In contrast, decreased fetal swallowing follows the introduction of a bitter substance.
Altered facial expressions often follow. Through a series of step-like leg motions similar to walking, the fetus performs somersaults. The fetus appears less wrinkled as additional fat deposits form beneath the skin. By 28 weeks the fetus can distinguish between high- and low-pitched sounds.
By 30 weeks, breathing movements are more common and occur 30 to 40 percent of the time in an average fetus. During the last 4 months of pregnancy, the fetus displays periods of coordinated activity punctuated by periods of rest. These behavioral states reflect the ever-increasing complexity of the central nervous system. They will continue to form until 8 years after birth.
At 35 weeks the fetus has a firm hand grasp. Fetal exposure to various substances appears to affect flavor preferences after birth.
For instance, fetuses whose mothers consumed anise, a substance which gives licorice its taste, showed a preference for anise after birth. Newborns without fetal exposure disliked anise. Labor is marked by powerful contractions of the uterus, resulting in childbirth. From fertilization to birth and beyond, human development is dynamic, continuous, and complex. New discoveries about this fascinating process increasingly show the vital impact of fetal development on lifelong health.
As our understanding of early human development advances, so too will our ability to enhance health——both before and after birth. There are 2. This calculation includes the DNA from red blood cells. The following page contains a list of 3, capital letters each of which represents a single base.
Each line contains 68 letters without spaces representing 68 bases. Each page contains 56 lines. Reported heart rates vary however.
Van Heeswijk et al. The heart rate for the various weeks from 7 through 38 have been calculated via linear interpolations  assuming heart rates of bpm at 7 weeks and bpm at term or 38 weeks. Note: Heart rates are estimated.
Living conditions and individual experience can and will vary. Carnegie Stages, to Particular internal and external features are required for inclusion in any given embryonic stage.
Josef Wisser in Others may report this occurrence at 28 or 29 days as shown above. Schats et al. These approximations may change in the future as additional knowledge is gained through careful, published research. Greatest length data is essentially uniform throughout the various texts. Various pages. Table A-1 — essentially unchanged from the edition. The convention differs only slightly from the convention as shown. Abramovich D, Gray E.
Physiological fetal defecation in midpregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. Adams WE. Early human development. Essential cell biology.
New York: Garland. Histochemistry and development of the human eyelids. Acta Opthalmol. Histochemistry and development of the human eyelids II. The fetal genitourinary tract. Semin Roentgenol. Ayto J. Dictionary of word origins. New York: Arcade. Babler WJ. Embryologic development of epidermal ridges and their configurations. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required.
Request permissions. Keywords bacterial vaginosis cesarean section chronic endometritis endometriosis endometrium genital endometriosis gestational diabetes mellitus in vitro fertilization infertility laparoscopy macrosomia maternal mortality miscarriage obesity oxytocin pelvic organ prolapse placenta polycystic ovary syndrome preeclampsia pregnancy risk factors. Effect of labor stimulation on fetal cerebral hemodynamics.
Authors: Ivshin A. Abstract Full Text About the authors References Statistics Abstract Article evaluates the state of the cerebral blood flow of the fetus in pregnant women with primary uterine dystocia, require correction oxytocin. The study included 52 mothers who had primary uterine dystocia. Correction of uterine activity, as measured by infusion of oxytocin concentration of 10 mU of oxytocin 1 ml of saline.
Leitich H, Kiss H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Cytokines, prostaglandins and parturition — a review. Midtrimester bacterial vaginosis and cervical length in women at risk for preterm birth.
Normal vaginal flora, disorders and application of probiotics in pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with prematurity and vaginal fluid mucinase and sialidase: results of a controlled trial of topical clindamycin cream.
The efficacy of ampicillin and Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus in the active management of pretermpremature rupture of membranes remote from term. Drug Des Devel Ther. Krauss-Silva L, Moreira ME, Alves MB, et al A randomized controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results. Probiotics for preventing preterm labour. The rationale for probiotics improving reproductive health and pregnancy outcome.
Am J Reprod Immunol. Petricevic L, Witt A. The role of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in restoring the normal vaginal flora after antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
Adhesion of human probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus to cervical and vaginal cells and interaction with vaginosis-associated pathogens. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. Persistence of colonization of intestinal mucosa by a probiotics strain, Lactobacillus casei subsp.
J Clin Microbio. J Biotechnol. Issledovanie in vitro rosta, razmnozheniya, antibiotikorezistentnosti, konkurentnyh vzaimootnoshenij shtamma Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus. Akusherstvo i ginekologiya. In Russ.