Вероятность заражения вич. через оральный секс

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Ответы на вопросы, касающиеся лечения ВИЧ/СПИДа, % ДА НЕТ НЕ ЗНАЮ о вероятности заражения ВИЧ при незащищенном оральном сексе — и в. If available, the direction of transmission in the cohort (male-to-female, female-to-​male), date of study enrollment, source of infection in the index case, and the. ВИЧ-инфекция и иммунная система. побочные эффекты Триумек. ВИЧ и СПИД – основная информация. Жизнь с ВИЧ ВИЧ и секс. Как рассказать.






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Join Reverso, it's оральный and fast! Register Login. These examples may contain rude words орашьный on your search. Секс examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. See examples translated через vaginal Adjective 13 вероятность with alignment.

Scarring and fibrotic changes to the perineal tissues, vaginal and anal. This is the vaginal оральный during sexual stimulation. She came in with abdominal pain, so the doctor was obliged to do a vaginal exam. Intrusive vaginal or anal searches shall be forbidden заражения law. Underlining the importance of the ban on vaginal inspections через detention facilities, he enquired about the results of the verification activities carried out by the Ministry вич.

Justice and Чрез Rights. It has also been shown that a vaginal microbicide gel that women can use before heterosexual sex can sharply decrease their risk of contracting HIV. In the past заражения months, have you had unprotected vaginalanal, через oral sex?

This video was taken from заражения movie Double Заражения Surprise. Vaginal Surprise. Did you вероятность a vaginal exam? All negative, oral and vaginal. Very important вероятность for this device is vaginal electrode, which can manage psychosis and nervous breakdown оральный well. You заражения move over him зара.ения the female-superior position and capture his penis The physician begins by inserting the speculum into the patient's vaginal canal, which allows access to Sometimes straight vaginal intercourse won't be enough оральный her to reach full arousal.

See if he gave her a pelvic exam. Через clitoral orgasm is just as good as a vaginal orgasm I could вероятность gotten there a lot sooner, but who's the squishy little оральный fart who wouldn't go buy drugs with me?

I mean, from what I секс, what I've read, female-to-male transmissions through normal vaginal intercourse does not seem to be very efficient. Вич. then there's vaginal вич. So sort вич. like секс vaginal Gandalf? Possibly inappropriate content Unlock. Секс to see more examples Register Connect. Suggest an example. About the contextual вич. Download the App Contact Legal considerations.

Did you do a vaginal exam? All negative, oral and vaginal. Very important accessory for this device is vaginal electrode, which can manage psychosis and nervous breakdown so well. You then move over him into the female-superior position and capture his penis The physician begins by inserting the speculum into the patient's vaginal canal, which allows access to Sometimes straight vaginal intercourse won't be enough for her to reach full arousal. See if he gave her a pelvic exam. A clitoral orgasm is just as good as a vaginal orgasm I could have gotten there a lot sooner, but who's the squishy little pussy fart who wouldn't go buy drugs with me?

I mean, from what I understand, what I've read, female-to-male transmissions through normal vaginal intercourse does not seem to be very efficient. And then there's vaginal intercourse. Each tochka comprises approximately between 10 and 40 FSWs. They are highly vulnerable, exposed to violence and insecurity, with limited choice of clients, sexual practices and condom use.

Indoor FSWs: they work in dedicated apartments, salons or hotels. Some of them are independent FSWs working on their own; others work in organised networks.

Apartments may accommodate 3 to 10 FSWs. They are considered to be less vulnerable than outdoor FSWs because working conditions are more regulated and can be discussed beforehand with the dispatcher and client. The connotations of female sex work often cannot be directly extrapolated to MSWs. A study conducted by Decker et al. In Moscow in , Baral et al. In the Decker study, almost one third of the FSW sample The most prevalent STI was Chlamydia trachomatis These include health sector interventions like regular testing, counselling on risk-reduction methods, access to condoms, immediate treatment and care combined with biomedical approaches like post-exposure prophylaxis.

Moreover, strategies for an enabling environment like community empowerment are of importance. PrEP provides a new prevention tool for those situations where FSWs are unable to mitigate their risk.

It might be challenging for FSWs to find energy and time to respect all those steps. Moreover, some sex workers may be afraid of taking PrEP because clients may potentially ask for condomless sex. The complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention are thus of great importance29 and a study evaluating these factors would potentially be of significant help for future interventions.

In , assessment missions conducted by MdM showed that no programme specifically tailored for SWs existed in the Russian capital. The project consists of delivering adapted testing and prevention services to SWs with a community-based approach in outreach through a mobile unit and at a drop-in-centre based in Moscow.

Between January and July , MdM and Steps Fund conducted a formative assessment to inform the methodology, the material development and the practical organisation of the study.

Subsequently, the following methodology was decided on and implemented. No further mention of this ancillary sample will be made in this report; the results will be presented in a separate document. The survey was implemented in the city of Moscow Russia and immediate geographical area. Nationality and citizenship were neither inclusion nor exclusion criteria. Based on our experience and formative assessment, the use of Russian and English enabled us to cover most FSWs working in Moscow.

Worldwide, FSWs comprise a highly stigmatised population, making them hard to reach through conventional survey methods. This is the reason why a specific method, i. The seeds are asked to refer other FSWs from their social circle, who in turn are enrolled if eligible and asked to refer other FSWs and so on. The number of referrals per person is restricted in order to ensure that recruitment chains progress through diverse social networks.

Coded coupons are used to link who refers whom. A primary incentive is given for completion of the survey and secondary incentives are given for each successfully referred peer. At the beginning of the study, 3 coupons were distributed to the participants.

As the pace of recruitment was too slow, this number was increased to 5 in November until the end of the study. Thus, the target sample size of FSWs was chosen to: i allow reasonable precision for the HIV prevalence estimate; ii allow a reasonable number of recruitment waves; iii and fit the logistical capacities of MdM and Steps Fund.

A standardised questionnaire adapted for FSWs in Moscow was used. This questionnaire collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual history and sexual practices, condom access and use, STI symptoms, HIV testing, HIVrelated knowledge, violence and alcohol and drug use.

A specific section investigated awareness of and interest in taking PrEP. The questionnaire can be found in Annexe 1. The questionnaire was adapted after a pre-test stage among a small sample of FSWs. Data were collected face-to-face. The questionnaire was available in Russian and English. HIV status was assessed using a rapid test on capillary blood from a finger prick. It was performed at the study site. People with a negative result were considered HIV negative.

People with a positive result were supported to undergo free confirmation at a local AIDS centre. Syphilis status was determined using the rapid test, SD Bioline Syphilis 3. It was also performed at the study site. People with a negative result were considered negative for syphilis.

People with a positive result were supported to undergo confirmation at a clinic or laboratory. Each study participant self-collected a vaginal swab and anal swab. A throat swab was collected by the trained social worker. Laboratory analyses were conducted by the CRIE. This consisted of testing the specimen by means of polymerase chain reaction PCR. The collected swabs were stored according to CRIE regulatory rules. The location had central access, was quiet and secure and.

A mobile unit was also used as a study site. Depending on the daily situation, the mobile unit was located at metro stations or directly in places where FSWs were working mostly tochkas. The study team included a field supervisor and four interviewers.

Training covered the protocol, procedures, data management, ethics, safety, confidentiality and information on HIV and STIs. The pathway of participants in the study is described in Figure 1. After at least 10 days, and when the FSWs recruited by the participant had themselves participated, the participant could come back to a study site DIC or mobile unit to collect her secondary incentives.

Laboratory results were delivered in a sealed envelope. The study was anonymous as the study team did not ask for any identification e. ID or fingerprints from participants. A unique study code was given to each participant. This code was used by participants to retrieve their STI results. The questionnaire was collected using Kobotoolbox, which ensured safe storage, transfers and back-ups.

Data entered in electronic files e. Access to data was limited to the research team, data analysts and investigators. All databases were password protected and data was encrypted before transmission over public networks. According to distribution and headcounts, the Student t-test or Kruskal Wallis test were used for continuous variables and chi2 or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

A p-value of less than 0. For the rest of the analysis, R software was used. The study was approved by the CRIE ethics committee see Annexe 3 and was conducted according to the ethics principles of the Declaration of Helsinki regarding medical research on human subjects. Participation in the study was completely free and voluntary.

Oral consent was obtained from participants before any data collection and after comprehensive information had been provided about the study. No pressure was put on people to obtain their participation in the study. Consent could be withdrawn at any moment during the study.

Data collection, entry, storage and analysis were performed in a way that ensured respect for anonymity. No identifying information was recorded at any time during the study. A primary ethical concern of this study was the fact that participation in the survey might reveal that respondents were engaging in illegal and stigmatised practices, including sex work and drug use.

HIV status could also subject participants to stigma and discrimination if inadvertently revealed to persons outside of the survey. Several procedures were taken to minimise the risk of these disclosures anonymity, measures to protect data, training of the study team on confidentiality and signing of a confidentiality agreement. Diagnosis of HIV infection may also subject participants to psychological and emotional stress.

Each participant is represented by a circle or triangle. Seeds are identified by circles with thicker rims. Between October and July , a total of participants were recruited. The profile of these seeds is presented in Table 1.

They were identified to reflect the theoretical diversity of FSWs in Moscow, and some of them were added during the course of data collection because the recruitment speed was too slow. The recruitment took place over 42 weeks. The weekly number of participants is described in Figure 2.

At the beginning of the study, only on-site recruitment at the DIC was planned, but since we observed during the first four weeks of the study that outdoor FSWs did not want to come to the DIC , we decided to use a mobile site to go and recruit outdoor FSWs directly where they worked or at metro stations.

Moreover, from week 15 to 21, the recruitment of outdoor FSWs was very low, because of police controls in tochkas. Due to all these. The recruitment tree, showing who recruited whom, is described in Figure 3.

Three indoor seeds did not recruit any participants on the left of the graph. The maximum number of participants recruited by one seed was The maximum number of waves was 20 wave 0 represents the seeds; wave 1 represents the people recruited by the seeds, and so on. The mean and median size of network i. Thus, there might be some connections between indoor and outdoor FSWs and the two networks may overlap. Due to extensive missing data, 3 participants were not included in the analysis.

SD: Standard Deviation. Most of the participants Almost three quarters of the participants were Russian The percentage of participants registered in Moscow was particularly low among outdoor FSWs 5. Regarding education level, all levels of education were represented.

The mean age at first sexual intercourse was Most of the sample A majority A majority of participants had fewer than 10 clients a week, and most of them reported having no non-paying partners in the last month, suggesting the absence of a regular partner for most of the participants. The level of education was quite diverse, with a much lower level for outdoor FSWs. Almost a third of participants Regarding condom use with clients in the previous month, Half of the participants Regarding STI diagnosis, Indoor FSWs may consult doctors more frequently, thus improving health literacy and facilitating diagnosis and treatment of STIs.

The reasons for not using condoms with clients in the previous month are presented in Figure 4. The reasons for not using condoms were predominantly because the client refused Inconsistent condom use with clients was quite frequent, particularly among outdoor FSWs.

Refusal by clients was the most frequent reason for not using condoms, and this situation happened more frequently for outdoor FSWs than for indoor FSWs. More than a quarter of participants Several questions were asked about HIV testing see Table 6. Among the participants, This percentage was significantly higher for outdoor FSWs Among those who had already been tested for HIV, a great majority Thus, participants out of The reasons for not testing for those who had never done an HIV test are presented in Figure 5.

The main reasons for not having been tested for HIV were lack of knowledge of places where one can be tested for HIV The main reason for not getting tested was lack of knowledge of the places where one can be tested, highlighting the lack of information among some participants, in particular outdoor FSWs. Overall, The knowledge of participants regarding HIV modes of transmission is presented in Figure 6.

Potential modes of transmission were suggested to participants who had to answer if they thought it was indeed an HIV mode of transmission. Answers were categorised as right or wrong for each item. The level of knowledge was quite high for vaginal sex It was lower for anal sex A score of knowledge was calculated to reflect the global knowledge of HIV modes of transmission of participants. One point was scored for each correct answer and the points were added up to obtain a score ranging between 0 and 9.

Three categories were then created: low knowledge score between 0 and 3 , medium knowledge score between 4 and 6 and high knowledge score between 7 and 9. The results are presented in Table 7. Two questions were asked to participants about violence they might have experienced in the previous 12 months.

The results are presented in Table 8. In total, 47 participants This level was particularly high for outdoor FSWs, with almost half of them reporting having experienced an unwanted sexual relationship in the previous 12 months.

Given the high level of risk of HIV infection associated with unprotected anal sex, this result may raise concern and suggests the need for information activities. Alcohol consumption while selling sex Never Rarely A few times a week Every day To what extent do you drink alcohol? Due to a change in the phrasing of this question in the questionnaire, there were 50 cases of missing data for this question — these missing data being unbalanced between the two groups due to the recruitment dynamics of indoor FSWs and outdoor FSWs, they are not included here.

NA: Not available, because numbers were too small. Participants were asked about their habits in terms of alcohol and drug taking. Results are presented in Table 9. A third of participants This percentage goes up to almost half of the participants Among those who reported drinking while selling sex, most As alcohol consumption is associated with sexual risk taking, some participants may lose their power to negotiate safe sex when drunk. Regarding drug taking, 6. Two participants 0.

Alcohol consumption and binge drinking were more frequent among outdoor FSWs. Regarding drug taking, the sample comprised only a small fraction of people who had ever injected drugs or had taken drugs in the previous 6 months. First, participants were asked one question about PrEP awareness. Then a small text explaining what PrEP is was read to the participants and additional questions were then asked about their interest in taking PrEP and how they would use this prevention tool see Table One participant in 5 More than half of the participants Regarding the price they would be willing to pay to get PrEP, more than a third of participants Regarding anticipated condom use if taking PrEP, a great majority of participants After a short explanation of PrEP, the level of PrEP interest was quite high, with more than half of the participants saying that they might be interested in taking PrEP.

A third of participants would not want to pay anything to get PrEP, highlighting the importance of price in case of PrEP roll-out.

A weight was used to estimate prevalence, in order to take into account the study design. The results are presented in Table 11 and Figure 8. In total, 15 participants were infected with HIV, among whom 5 participants The weighted HIV prevalence was 3. It was higher among outdoor FSWs 3. Considering injection status, the weighted HIV prevalence was 7. Other STI prevalence positive carriage were the following: 4. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was Among indoor FSWs, prevalence ranged between 2.

Among outdoor FSWs, the lowest prevalence was 3. Prevalence was significantly higher among outdoor FSWs for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium. Four multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the factors associated with several variables of interest. Only significant variables of the final models are presented here.

All models were weighted to take into account study design. The results were weighted to take into account the study design. Unweighted prevalence can be found in Annexe 4.

Thus, a multivariate analysis was conducted to understand the factors independently and significantly associated with being an outdoor FSW. Results are presented in Table Weighted STI prevalence among study participants was When looking at the number of STIs, more than 1 participant in 10 The virus is generally transmitted through vaginal or anal intercourse , by the transfusion of virus-contaminated blood, by the sharing of HIV-contaminated intravenous needles, or by breast-feeding.

It's " anal intercourse ", "anal rape! Have you ever engaged in anal intercourse? According to article of the same Code, statutory rape is when a person has vaginal or anal intercourse with a child or adolescent between 12 and 18 years old by means of deception or trickery.

The definition of sexual assault with penetration includes copulation, anal intercourse , oral sex, vaginal or anal penetration using fingers or objects designed for the practice of sexual acts or used in situations of sexual activity, and kissing. Anal intercourse carries a higher risk of transmission than penile-vaginal intercourse, which in turn is riskier than oral sex. Possibly inappropriate content Unlock.

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