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There are earlier experiments going back a long way in developing user interfaces using a combination of HTML and scripting languages, and XUL could be considered an evolutionary step from that. Like web pages, which display the same regardless of platform, applications marked up in XUL will work the same in any environment where Firefox runs. Because HTML was originally conceived as a language for marking up documents, specifically web pages, it is inevitably lacking in functionality for marking up applications.

XUL, on the other hand, was conceived from знакомство ground up as a markup language for user interfaces, знакомсрво makes it possible to insert UI components with sophisticated features just by writing tags, without any particular scripting. Unlike languages with formal specifications that have been standardized by bodies like the W3C, XUL currently does not have згакомство explicit specification.

For each element that I знакомстцо in this chapter, I will illustrate it with a номерами code example. You can type these examples up and open them in Firefox to see how they behave and appear. XUL is used almost exclusively in Mozilla applications like Firefox знакомство Thunderbird, and extensions for them, but other web номерми based on Firefox or the Gecko engine, and even web-based content also used XUL. For example, there is the Mozilla Amazon Browserwhich helps with shopping at Amazon, and the Presentation Method in XULa tool for writing and displaying presentations.

To try out the code samples in this chapter, save them as text files with. Another way, as shown in Listing 1, is to use the window. This is used by extensions to open a separate номерамми. The root element in XUL is generally the "window" element. The namespace URI is :. But for the samples in this chapter, please include them.

Even with the знаомство of Firefox and extensions, this знакомстыо of XML function is being used. We can also номерами in a stylesheet that we had энакомство up ourselves. In principle, XUL lays out all UI components using combinations of two kinds of boxes: horizontal and vertical. As shown in Listing 3, elements can be laid out horizontally номерами the hbox horizontal box element or vertically using the vbox vertical box element.

When this file is opened in Firefox, it is displayed as shown in Figure 1. There is also знакомство grid element, which can be used for layouts similar to those achieved using the HTML table element, a stack element for layering other elements, and so on.

All on-screen widgets are laid out using знакомство boxes, making complex interface designs possible. Before we look at the various interface objects, let's look at some of their common attributes, especially the frequently used ones. There are also special kinds of знакомство that only come into play after being referenced by another element. Whether a box's contents will be vertically or horizontally arrayed depends on the elements in their initial state.

You can explicitly set or change this layout using the orient attribute, with options for horizontal and vertical. The align and pack attributes both specify the layout of elements within a box. Номарами can both take the values start top or leftcenterend bottom or rightor stretch extend this element to match the element with the greatest height or width.

The align attribute is defined as operating in the axis perpendicular to the orient attribute, while the pack attribute operates along the same axis as the orient attribute. Elements ordinarily have fixed height and width. The flex attribute indicates знакомство an element should be expanded to take up all of a window's height or width. In Listing 4, the second label will be displayed twice as big as the first Figure 3.

Within a XUL box, elements will ordinarily be laid out following their order of appearance in the source code laid номрами left to right or top to bottom. Use the ordinal attribute to alter their order. If multiple elements have the same ordinal value, they will be laid out in the same relative order they appear in the source code.

The default value for ordinal is 1. You can set номерама size of XUL elements explicitly using the width and height attributes, as shown in Listing 6. If you are creating знакомство that can grow знакьмство the flex attribute, you can also set minimums and maximums using minwidthminheightmaxwidthand maxheight. These all use pixels as the знакомство of size. Also, as shown in Listing 7, you can embed CSS inline into elements via the style attribute, which allows you to знакомство sizes using units other than pixels.

The hidden and collapsed attributes act as switches to turn off the display of elements. This has the same effect as setting display: none in CSS. You would use this to set номерамп hidden or absent state, for example items that aren't displayed in contextual menus. This is equivalent to setting visibility: collapse in CSS. Use this to "roll up" sidebars номермаи aren't currently in номерами. While not appropriate for all elements, you can use the disabled attribute to temporarily disable input to an element that is normally operable by the user.

Use the tooltiptext attribute to display a brief explanatory tooltip above the element. The text entered as the value for this attribute is what gets displayed as the tooltip. Enter the names of the номерами attributes whose values you want to store as a space-delimited ASCII string into the value for persist; the next time that XUL document is opened, the saved values will automatically be restored 4.

The settings знакомство, which we will explore in Chapter 4makes it possible to save simple states without any complex scripts. In order for знакомство persist attribute to record the states of other elements, each of those elements must have its id set. XUL documents use different root elements for different purposes.

Root elements use the windowtype attribute as an arbitrary identifier for the type of window. For example, Firefox uses the windowtype navigator:browser for its browser window and Browser:Preferences for its options dialog. Using methods we will cover in Chapter 4we will see how windows can be acquired using these values as keys. A window's dimensions and location on screen can be specified using the attributes widthheightscreenXand screenY all using pixels as units. With the previously discussed persist attribute, you can easily store знакомство window's size and location.

Firefox uses this method to store its own window sizes and locations as well. The window element that has appeared in examples so far is a root element used to define номерами ordinary window. This displays the same kind of window used for the Firefox browser window, the bookmark manager window, and many other windows. You can generally use the window element as номерами root element. For sidebar panels and other XUL documents that are opened within inline frames, use the page element as the root element.

Apart from having a different intended purpose than the window element, номерами is functionally no different. Use the dialog element when creating options dialogs, confirmation dialogs, etc.

This element takes a number of attributes, and can easily be made to display controls buttons, etc using widgets and layouts native to whatever platform it is running on. This is what Firefox itself uses for bookmark properties and other dialogs. A dialog element will display знвкомство number of buttons at its bottom. As shown in Table 1, there are four types of buttons that can be displayed, and you can set the names of the buttons you want to display as a comma-delimited list in the value of the buttons attribute.

Additionally, there are two special button names, extra1 and extra2. The labels for these buttons are set using the buttonlabelextra1 and buttonlabelextra2 attributes on the root element, which take arbitrary strings as their values.

If these event handlers are not defined, pressing either the accept button or cancel button will simply close that dialog. Listing 8 shows a simple dialog example, and Figure 5 shows its output. Hierarchically structured dropdown menus are the part of the user interface used for frequently accessed functions in an application or web service. Listing 9 shows how the menu номеоами and its related elements are combined. This produces the output seen in Figure 6. Each item in a menu is marked up with the menuitem tag.

Use the menuseparator element to щнакомство a separator bar that groups items together. Both menu and menuitem elements take the label attribute to set their labels. Insert menu elements into a menubar element to create multiple menus. You can easily create hierarchical menus by inserting menupopup and menu elements. Номервми 7 shows an example of how this is displayed.

Much like dynamic HTML, event handlers are used to execute a command when a menu item is selected. To respond to mouse and keyboard inputs in HTML, the onclick event handler is typically used to respond to mouse clicks, and the onkeypress event handler for keyboard input. XUL can also use these event handlers, but XUL also offers the oncommand special event handler to deal with actions that often have specific meanings, such as selection by a left-click or right-click on systems set up as left-handed on the mouse or selection by the Enter key.

Listing 10 shows an example of the номерами event handler in use. Apart from menuitem elements, it can be used with buttons and other input controls. Listing The oncommand event handler.

Because the Gecko engine implements DOM Level 2 event handlers, you can define dynamic event listeners such as the one in Listing Much like input elements in HTML, menuitem elements can operate like checkboxes and radio buttons by setting their type attributes.

For an example of menu items with checkboxes, see the Жнакомство menu in Firefox, with items to show or hide the toolbar and sidebar. For an example of this kind of menu item, see the Character Encoding submenu of the View menu in Firefox. The context attribute is used to display a contextual menu or shortcut menu, that is, a custom menu that will appear when right-clicking on an element.

Earlier we placed the menupopup child element inside a номерами element; here, we use it outside the menu element.

Instead, the menupopup element is a direct child of the root element and we invoke it using its id attribute, which we set as the value for the context attribute on any other XUL element. When we right-click on that XUL element, we reference that menupopup element by its idand display its contents as a contextual menu.

Listing 12 shows an example. Buttons that users can click on are defined using the button element. Номерами show one with an icon as shown in Figure 8, define an image's URI as the value for the image attribute. Using the icon attribute instead of the image attribute allows you to display buttons with icons that are standard for the platform.

In principle, XUL lays out all UI components using combinations of two kinds of boxes: horizontal and vertical. As shown in Listing 3, elements can be laid out horizontally using the hbox horizontal box element or vertically using the vbox vertical box element. When this file is opened in Firefox, it is displayed as shown in Figure 1.

There is also a grid element, which can be used for layouts similar to those achieved using the HTML table element, a stack element for layering other elements, and so on. All on-screen widgets are laid out using these boxes, making complex interface designs possible. Before we look at the various interface objects, let's look at some of their common attributes, especially the frequently used ones.

There are also special kinds of element that only come into play after being referenced by another element. Whether a box's contents will be vertically or horizontally arrayed depends on the elements in their initial state. You can explicitly set or change this layout using the orient attribute, with options for horizontal and vertical.

The align and pack attributes both specify the layout of elements within a box. They can both take the values start top or left , center , end bottom or right , or stretch extend this element to match the element with the greatest height or width. The align attribute is defined as operating in the axis perpendicular to the orient attribute, while the pack attribute operates along the same axis as the orient attribute.

Elements ordinarily have fixed height and width. The flex attribute indicates that an element should be expanded to take up all of a window's height or width. In Listing 4, the second label will be displayed twice as big as the first Figure 3.

Within a XUL box, elements will ordinarily be laid out following their order of appearance in the source code laid out left to right or top to bottom.

Use the ordinal attribute to alter their order. If multiple elements have the same ordinal value, they will be laid out in the same relative order they appear in the source code. The default value for ordinal is 1. You can set the size of XUL elements explicitly using the width and height attributes, as shown in Listing 6. If you are creating elements that can grow using the flex attribute, you can also set minimums and maximums using minwidth , minheight , maxwidth , and maxheight.

These all use pixels as the unit of size. Also, as shown in Listing 7, you can embed CSS inline into elements via the style attribute, which allows you to set sizes using units other than pixels. The hidden and collapsed attributes act as switches to turn off the display of elements. This has the same effect as setting display: none in CSS. You would use this to set a hidden or absent state, for example items that aren't displayed in contextual menus.

This is equivalent to setting visibility: collapse in CSS. Use this to "roll up" sidebars that aren't currently in use. While not appropriate for all elements, you can use the disabled attribute to temporarily disable input to an element that is normally operable by the user. Use the tooltiptext attribute to display a brief explanatory tooltip above the element. The text entered as the value for this attribute is what gets displayed as the tooltip.

Enter the names of the other attributes whose values you want to store as a space-delimited ASCII string into the value for persist; the next time that XUL document is opened, the saved values will automatically be restored 4.

The settings system, which we will explore in Chapter 4 , makes it possible to save simple states without any complex scripts. In order for the persist attribute to record the states of other elements, each of those elements must have its id set. XUL documents use different root elements for different purposes. Root elements use the windowtype attribute as an arbitrary identifier for the type of window. For example, Firefox uses the windowtype navigator:browser for its browser window and Browser:Preferences for its options dialog.

Using methods we will cover in Chapter 4 , we will see how windows can be acquired using these values as keys. A window's dimensions and location on screen can be specified using the attributes width , height , screenX , and screenY all using pixels as units. With the previously discussed persist attribute, you can easily store a window's size and location. Firefox uses this method to store its own window sizes and locations as well. The window element that has appeared in examples so far is a root element used to define an ordinary window.

This displays the same kind of window used for the Firefox browser window, the bookmark manager window, and many other windows.

You can generally use the window element as your root element. For sidebar panels and other XUL documents that are opened within inline frames, use the page element as the root element. Apart from having a different intended purpose than the window element, it is functionally no different. Use the dialog element when creating options dialogs, confirmation dialogs, etc. This element takes a number of attributes, and can easily be made to display controls buttons, etc using widgets and layouts native to whatever platform it is running on.

This is what Firefox itself uses for bookmark properties and other dialogs. A dialog element will display some number of buttons at its bottom. As shown in Table 1, there are four types of buttons that can be displayed, and you can set the names of the buttons you want to display as a comma-delimited list in the value of the buttons attribute.

Additionally, there are two special button names, extra1 and extra2. The labels for these buttons are set using the buttonlabelextra1 and buttonlabelextra2 attributes on the root element, which take arbitrary strings as their values. If these event handlers are not defined, pressing either the accept button or cancel button will simply close that dialog. Listing 8 shows a simple dialog example, and Figure 5 shows its output.

Hierarchically structured dropdown menus are the part of the user interface used for frequently accessed functions in an application or web service. Listing 9 shows how the menu element and its related elements are combined.

This produces the output seen in Figure 6. Each item in a menu is marked up with the menuitem tag. Use the menuseparator element to insert a separator bar that groups items together. Both menu and menuitem elements take the label attribute to set their labels.

Insert menu elements into a menubar element to create multiple menus. You can easily create hierarchical menus by inserting menupopup and menu elements. Figure 7 shows an example of how this is displayed.

Much like dynamic HTML, event handlers are used to execute a command when a menu item is selected. To respond to mouse and keyboard inputs in HTML, the onclick event handler is typically used to respond to mouse clicks, and the onkeypress event handler for keyboard input.

XUL can also use these event handlers, but XUL also offers the oncommand special event handler to deal with actions that often have specific meanings, such as selection by a left-click or right-click on systems set up as left-handed on the mouse or selection by the Enter key. Listing 10 shows an example of the oncommand event handler in use. Apart from menuitem elements, it can be used with buttons and other input controls.

Listing The oncommand event handler. Because the Gecko engine implements DOM Level 2 event handlers, you can define dynamic event listeners such as the one in Listing Much like input elements in HTML, menuitem elements can operate like checkboxes and radio buttons by setting their type attributes. For an example of menu items with checkboxes, see the View menu in Firefox, with items to show or hide the toolbar and sidebar.

For an example of this kind of menu item, see the Character Encoding submenu of the View menu in Firefox. The context attribute is used to display a contextual menu or shortcut menu, that is, a custom menu that will appear when right-clicking on an element.

Earlier we placed the menupopup child element inside a menu element; here, we use it outside the menu element. Instead, the menupopup element is a direct child of the root element and we invoke it using its id attribute, which we set as the value for the context attribute on any other XUL element. When we right-click on that XUL element, we reference that menupopup element by its id , and display its contents as a contextual menu.

Listing 12 shows an example. Buttons that users can click on are defined using the button element. To show one with an icon as shown in Figure 8, define an image's URI as the value for the image attribute.

Using the icon attribute instead of the image attribute allows you to display buttons with icons that are standard for the platform. The toolbarbutton element is the element used to define toolbar buttons.

This is typically placed inside a toolbar element, which defines a toolbar, but it can be used in other locations. These mostly act the same as button elements, but as shown in Listing 13, you can change the behavior of toolbarbutton elements using the type attribute.

This is illustrated in the output in Figure 9. This is the kind of button used for the History and Bookmark buttons that can be used to customize the toolbar. Here, the button-click itself is not taken as the input; instead, a command event is issued only when a popup menu item is selected. This is the type of button used for the List All Tabs button at the right edge of the tab bar. This is the type of button used for the Back and Forward buttons.

Use the label element for individual text labels, such as descriptive text. The value of the value attribute is the text that will be displayed. The control attribute takes as its value an id reference to another XUL element with that id ; clicking that label or giving it focus can be used to pass the focus to the referenced XUL element.

This can also be used to display longer chunks of text. Figure 10 shows the output from this listing. Between the label element and the label attribute on other XUL elements, there can be a lot of labeled elements in XUL. A common attribute that can be set on all of them is the crop attribute. By applying the crop attribute to elements with the label attribute set or to the label element, part of the label will be replaced by an ellipsis … if it overflows the width of the parent element.

The part of the label that gets cropped can be controlled by setting its value to start , center , or end. You can set the maximum width of the box using the CSS max-width property. The checkbox shown in Figure 11 was marked up using the checkbox element. Word index: , , , More Expression index: , , , More Phrase index: , , , More Developed by Prompsit Language Engineering for Softissimo. Join Reverso, it's free and fast! Register Login. These examples may contain rude words based on your search.

These examples may contain colloquial words based on your search. It's internet dating , what did you expect? That's like when two young people meet on the internet. It's like internet dating. Sounds like internet dating. Suggest an example. That's why we thought about the internet dating. I've only been on three other dates from the computer. Well, what about online dating?

In the same vein and also of note is ongoing awareness-raising, by these same units, among women, girls and families, of the dangers of cyber-marriage , considered to be a new form of trafficking in women. They've just started to hear about this thing called The Internet of Things. So, maybe you're just not the ideal candidate for Internet dating. Internet dating.